It is clear that the Gospel of Barnabas contains a number of anachronisms and historical errors:
1) It has Jesus sailing across the Sea of Galilee to Nazareth which is actually inland – see chapters 20–21.
2) Jesus is said to have been born during the rule of Pontius Pilate, which began after the year AD 26 – see chapter 3.
3) Barnabas appears not to know that “Christ” and “Messiah” are synonyms, “Christ” (khristos) being a Greek translation of the word messiah (mashiach), both having the meaning of “anointed”. The Gospel of Barnabas makes a major error in describing Jesus as “Jesus Christ” (lit. “Messiah Jesus” in Greek), yet claiming that ‘Jesus confessed and said the truth, “I am not the Messiah”‘ – see chapter 42.
The Gospel of Barnabas has quotations from the Old Testament which correspond to the translation of the Latin Vulgate Bible rather than the Greek Septuagint or the Hebrew Masoretic Text. The Latin Vulgate translation was a work that Jerome began in 382 AD, centuries after the death of Barnabas.
No-one in the early centuries of the Church ever quotes from it.
Not to be confused with the Epistle of Barnabas.
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