Vatican News reports:
The world’s smallest sovereign state was born on February 11, 1929, with the signing of the Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and the Kingdom of Italy. On Tuesday, Vatican City State turned 91. We briefly trace its history before it came into existence.
For many, Vatican City and the Holy See are synonymous but they are not. While Vatican City State refers to the sovereign geographical state which came into being only in 1929, the existence of the Holy See is a juridical entity, whose existence goes back to early Christian era and is the central authority overseeing the worldwide Catholic Church.
Vatican City is an enclave or an independent sovereign state in the Italian capital, Rome. With an area of just 0.44 square kilometres enclosed within a perimeter of 3.2 km, it is equivalent to some 61 standard football grounds.